John L. Fell Berkeley: University of California Press, , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Theory of Colors , trans. Charles Lock Eastlake Cambridge, Mass. Through the use of stencils, one cut 12 for each color to be applied, the application of tints was speeded up to an acceptable level see Appendix A.
A maximum of six stencils w a s used in certain scenes to provide a wide variety of colors and hues to be projected upon the screen. In recently examined prints of the process, one finds much mono-color tinting with occasional splashes of color. One scene in a typical print shows the appearance of a demon. Up to this time, the film has been tinted only blue. As a puff of smoke announces the demon, we see the smoke tinted in orange.
Nowotny, Robert A. New York: Garland Pub, pp.
Les dieux des stades
In order to stencil a cinema film a separate stencil will be needed for each colour on each frame. In manual stencilling the worker holds the stencil in the left hand exactly superimposed on the film and, with the right hand, dips a paintbrush into the colour usually an acid tint dye, but dyes of all sorts were used , partially dries it on a pad, and places it on the stencil. A light stroke is used to transfer the colour through the cut-out and onto the emulsion side of the film image.
The result was very precise provided the stencil had been cut well , but the colouring process was extremely slow and therefore expensive.
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The machine for cutting the stencils was extremely precise. Each frame was projected onto a piece of glass. The outline of the image that was to be cut out was traced on the glass by the operator using a pointer attached to a pantograph, which guided the device not unlike a sewing machine with an oscillating needle which cut the stencil.
The resulting stencils, one for each colour, were a length of film of the same length as the final print. The emulsion on the stencil film was then washed off. The machine for colouring the positive copies used a sprocket wheel which allowed a stencil and a positive copy to be pulled along together in contact.
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A velvet ribbon loop, continuously replenished with dye solution from a tank, acted as the brush, transferring the dye through the stencil to the print. The procedure had to be repeated for each colour. This information is described in the patent literature of the time, which also reports that it was possible to stencil a film with up to seven different colours at a time in a single pass through the machine.
The process was used, with minor differences, by such other companies as Gaumont in France and Ambrosio and Cines in Italy. It seems that the continuous stencilling machinery was considerably more complex than film processing machinery at that time. In: Film History, The first required cutting a different stencil for each color. These stencils were then used in a machine that automatically applied the color to the positive print.
Typically, a film required three to six stencils. At first, the cutting was done manually, using a cutting edge or a sharp needle on each frame. It was a difficult and time-consuming operation, but its advantage was that it needed to be done only once for each color to be applied. The stencils were then immersed in hypochlorite, which functioned as a degelatinizing agent.
Fatou, Julia, Montel
This treatment permitted the color to be applied more easily, without scratching the final print, or shrinking or embrittling the stencil. Manual cutting rapidly became obsolete in favor of a semiautomatic device similar to a sewing machine, with the cutting needle operated by an A. At least two patents for this system are known. In a further stage of development, the technician no longer cut the matrix directly but worked instead on a parallel bench with a reference print. The area to be stenciled was traced with a stylus connected through a pantograph to a cutting needle that followed the identical contours on a strip of raw film stock.
To ensure that the stencil cut precisely matched the actual shape of the area to be colored, the cutting needle worked only when the stylus was touching the film. A late development of this technique, relatively common around the mids, involved the use of a series of enlarged images instead of a reference print.
These methods were widely used until the end of the silent period. Such a complex system required the employment of highly specialized personnel. Several weeks of training were necessary to make sure that the technician could prepare the stencils in the most precise and effective way. Even then, the most skilled worker could not cut more than 3 feet of stencil an hour. Despite the fact that a stylus and a pantograph allowed for the use of raw stock, thus avoiding the degelatinizing process, it was periodically necessary to stop and verify the result.
Moreover, when substantial portions of the frame were to be cut, manual cutting was still preferred. In such cases, alternate frames were cut from two separate stencils, because a single stencil would have been too fragile for repeated use. In most coloring machines, a sprocket system matched the matrix to the black-and-white print.
All the copies of a particular scene were joined and matched with the stencil, which rotated in a continuous loop. The aniline dye was then spread on the film by a loop of velvet moving in a direction opposite that of the advancing film. This band was fed past a rotating brush immersed in a tank of dye; the amount of dye transferred from the rotating brush to the velvet band was adjustable depending on the depth of the brush in the tank. In order to ensure uniformity, the velvet band colored three frames at a time. If a mistake was made, the color could be washed out, leaving the base ready for another treatment.
This system- was used throughout the s 10 and survived until the dawn of the sound era. Less than 2 years after the invention of the stencil system, however, this method was combined with other techniques of film coloring, nowadays summarized under the terms tinting and toning. The earliest example I have found of this use of combined techniques is a nitrate fragment from a Gaumont film presumably made around , tentatively identified as Roi Midas.
The source of the tentative title is the catalog of the Josef Joye Collection in Zurich, where the material was found. It is reproduced in Paolo Cherchi Usai, Una passione inflammabile. In: Abel, Richard ed. New Brunswick : Rutgers University Press, pp.
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She died some months later. Q: When were you born and when did you start working?
I began working August 26, A: She was in the Colour Division. It was the director, Mr. Fourel, who oversaw everything. He was in charge of colour, which included the women and the other managers. Q: How many workers were there in his employ? A: We were rather numerous — colourists and cutting machine operators, which are two distinct types of work. There were also the technicians who applied ink.
Q: Were you adept at both?checkout.midtrans.com/arjona-ligar-mujeres.php
A: No, it was necessary to be technically trained. I personally did cutting because I had excellent eyesight and eyeglasses were not permissible. When we arrived at the studio, we were promoted quicker than the average employee because of our drawing knowledge. Had we not been skilled draughtswomen, and had we not been skilled at colour application, we would have lagged behind in our career — applying ink only.
Q: How were you trained and instructed at work?